Category Archives: Terrains

Hex-Grid Dungeon Generation I

This is the first new post for a series of dungeon generator experiences. As you might expect I have a new game project (since February this year) which is based on a hex-gird. The game mechanic will be something between Hack-n-Slay and Pokémon, but more to that on a dedicated project page later.

First, there is an extremely valuable source for many algorithms appearing on a hex grid: [1]. This side is one of the best web pages I have seen so far. It has very helpful explanations for all hex-grid problems and shows interactive examples for each of them. Moreover, if you change an option in one example, all others adapt to this same option. If you don't understand a detail in this post related to the hex-grid, just have a look on the mentioned side.

Generating Caves on Hex-Grids (Cellular Automaton)

There are many types of dungeons and generators, especially on quad-grids. You can have special maze generators, room based dungeons and caves. This post shows how to generate caves on the hex-grid.

Cellular automata seem to be the most common approach for generating caves. One source I found inspirational is this article [2]. However, I was not able to find sources on good hex-grid cave generator rules quickly, so I started experimenting and here are my results.

The basic idea is to start with a random initialization (floor/wall) and apply some iterations of a cellular automaton. This automaton will check the neighborhood of a cell and decide which type the cell gets in the next turn, based on the number of certain elements in the vicinity. Let being the count of Floor (or Wall) tiles around a cell within a range of 1 excluding the tile itself. This count can be a number in . Then, the following rules produced good cave maps:

One important thing is when and how the new type is set. Usually, an automaton would change all states at once, after the types of all cells are determined. Directly changing the cell type will also change the neighborhood of the next cell, which can lead to a fast collapse into a single type only. Luckily the above rule handles direct changes very well. So, yes I am changing types immediately...

Here are two examples with different initialization conditions (60% and 65%), using the same seed. Each row shows the initialization and two iterations.

cave_init60 cave_60_it1 cave_60_it2
cave_init65 cave_65_it1 cave_65_it2

The base shape is determined by the simple fact that I loop over my memory in a rectangle fashion during initialization. It could easily be changed, but I see no need for it. Using the 65% initialization I did not see any caves with large disconnected components on several seeds. If a dungeon is too small it can thus be regenerated with a high success probability. However, even through there are only a few small disconnected components we want to remove them before proceeding with populating the dungeon. It would be a disaster if the boss is in another component and the only way out of a dungeon is killing that boss... Extracting a single component is simply by using a flood-fill.

To make sure we know a good start point, we can modify the initialization. For example, I set all seven tiles around position (0,0) to floor. This gives an area of high floor density which will lead to even more floor tiles in the automaton iteration. It is more likely that the region grows than that it shrinks.

Fractal Noise as Generator

While the above rule is relatively stable, there are no real options to tweak the scale, ... Instead of trying to resample the map as done by [2] to get larger caves I switched to another idea: Generating a fractal noise (Value Noise or Perlin Noise) and using a threshold to determine occupied tiles. Assuming the fractal noise is in [0,1] a threshold of 0.5 should give roughly 50% occupancy. There are several degrees of freedom:

  • The threshold: steers how much of the map is occupied (sparsity)
  • The number of octaves: large scale vs. small scale structures
  • The turbulence function (adding octaves, multiplying, ridged (abs), ...): different shapes

As noise function I used a Perlin Noise with ridged turbulence function. Unfortunately, any noise results in very straight boundaries at the edge of the generation area. Therefore, I gradually increase the threshold to the outer boundary (quadratic over radius of 10 tiles) up to 1.

Of course, there is now guarantee for connected components, but this is the same as for the cellular automaton. I decided to fix this problem with a general approach described in the next section. But, first here some examples of the generator output.  The images have increasing threshold levels which reduces the number of non-empty tiles and increases the chance for non-connected components. The green connections are created by the algorithm below.

cave_perlin_1 cave_perlin_4 cave_perlin_6 cave_perlin_7

Reconnecting Components

Rather than recreating dungeons until they have the right size by accident it is better to somehow increase connectivity. Starting with some known (e.g. (0,0) start position) or a random floor tile one can mark all connected tiles with a flood fill. Then, another unmarked tile can be searched and connected with a randomized work between the start region and the obviously disconnected region. I use an A* way search where empty tiles have a random high cost in [5,20] (fixed for the time of search) and floor tiles have a low constant cost [0.01]. This leads to a non-straight connection between probably close points of the two sets. After connecting the two regions the new part can be marked the same way as the start region (it now belongs to it). When using a simple scan-line as search, all disconnected components will be connected finally.


Dual Contouring

The basis for many model generators is an algorithm to turn an implicit surface into a mesh. I implemented different algorithms over the last years and found the famous Marching Cubes painful. There is a bunch of lookup tables and optimizing it creates even more lookup tables. It has to be said that I always try to create vertex and index buffer which means the algorithm must find adjacent triangles fast. However it took me 500 lines code to implement that. This year I discovered another algorithm: Dual Contouring (Marching Edges would fit as name too). I required 200 lines of code to implement it and the performance/quality is good. Dual Contouring creates nicer meshes (more regular triangles) but produces artefacts if objects become too small, which Marching Cubes also do.

The method was invented 2002 and published on the Siggraph: Dual Contouring of Hermite Data. They also compare this method to marching cubes. You might have a look at the pictures to see the differences.

The Idea

In simple words: span a grid, check each edge, if one vertex of the edge is inside and the other outside create a quad perpendicular to that edge, project quad to the isosurface.

Ok the first step is to take a search grid. This grid has some resolution in each direction and determines the detail of the resulting mesh. Whereby cells of that grid must not necessarily be cubes.

DualGridThen we just compute the signs for each grid point by sampling of the density/distance function. An edge cuts the isosurface if the two adjacent grid points have a different sign. In that case create 6 new vertices for two triangles spanning a quad. We will resolve the adjacency later. The quad is located at the edge's center and has the same size as the grid in the two perpendicular directions. Assume the green grid to be the edge set of the resulting quads. Rendering that mesh directly creates a voxel-like surface. As the grid image shows the created mesh and the search grid are dual graphs. That is where the name comes from.


Now, only the projection is required. Technically this is done by a gradient descent or conjugated gradient descent algorithm. The gradient might be given by the implicit description of the model or can be estimated by finite differences. Following code snipped computes a variant of the gradient with modified length. If  _bLocalLength == false  this method returns the normal vector for the vertex at this location. Otherwise the length is scaled by the density value which speeds up the whole gradient descent process by a large factor (~8).

Doing this on the created triangles directly would mean to compute everything 6 times in average, since at each corner of a "voxel" six triangles meet. Further we would like to have a Indexbuffer for that model to reduce mesh size and increase rendering performance. So there is one intermediate step to find adjacent triangles.

Find Adjacency

Again it just needs a simple idea: Take a hash map, put vertices into, on collision map indices because we have two equal vertices. The main problem is to find an hash function for vertices, which projects very similar vertices to the same value and different vertices to diffferent values. The former is required because there could be little floating-point mistakes. The best thing here is to round the position to three digits and hash the rounded values. Indeed my function looks much more wired because it failed a lot for other meshes (from explicit surfaces). The hashing is still not perfect.

The  MeldVertices  method takes less than a thousandth part of the whole surface extraction process and increases the performance for everything after that step. It could also be used as post process for marching cubes results and other methods.
It should be mentioned that the upper method will fail for more than 8 hash-collisions between different vertices. This small drawback comes from the fact that the implementation is designed for demo (exe files with less than a couple of Kilobytes). You might want to use  std::vector  for the bucket or even some tree or  std::unordered_map  for the whole hashing.

Now one last image of the beautiful mesh:



Labyrinth Generation

This weekend I wrote a simply labyrinth generator for Pathfinder. It is surprisingly easy to get interesting systems. Much easier than trees!


The first and most important decision I made was to use a voxel grid. To create a mesh immediately would cause problems with self intersections. So my idea was to create a volume texture and just set voxels to solid, corridor, stairs, ... After that one could use a standard extraction of implicit surfaces (Marching Cubes or Dual Contouring). I decided to use a specialised generator to hold the amount of triangles low.

Without the special case of stairs the idea is very simple: For each non-solid voxel sample its 6 neighbours. If there is a solid voxel there must be a wall on that side - create a quad.

Component Generator

The generator must fill the voxel grid with meaningful values now. Since I would like to have corridors and rooms and no natural shapes it is sufficient to use very large voxels where one single voxels is already a corridor/room.

I divided the generator itself into two parts: The single components to describe a certain structure and a recursive method to create the full labyrinth. Each of the component generators return a position where further creations could be attached. My generator uses 3 basic elements:

  • Corridors: Just set a line of voxels to "Corridor". A corridor has a random length in [2,10].
  • Chambers: Create a larger empty volume centered at the entrance.
  • Stairs: Create two diagonal voxels of type stair. The problem here is the triangulation.Laby_Stairs There should be a slope between two floors but so far only axis aligned triangles are generated. I introduced a shearing for the stair voxels. So far so good but the resulting corridor will cross solid voxels (see image). That itself is no problem, but if an other structure intersects there this will cause an ugly triangle inside the room. To overcome this a stair structure locks its surrounding as solid.
    An much easier approach would be to create vertical corridors and insert stairs as extra objects. It is a design decision that I would like to have these slopes.

The recursive part is doing the following thing: Chose one of the structures probabilistically. If it is "corridors" create 1-3 corridors, otherwise create exactly one of the chosen structure. Continue recursion at each returned attachment point. To stop the recursion a counter is decreased in each step. It does not directly count the recursion depth. Instead it is decreased by the number of created sub-structures. So if there are 3 corridors the counter is decreased faster to stop the recursion earlier. This should stabilize the "size" of the result. For a really stable size-controll-factor it would be necessary to divide the remaining number through the number of sub calls. On that way one could exactly create n structures where n is given in advance.

It should be said that the generator can create labyrinths of where different complexity. In the described approach floors are generated in each voxel grid level. There are many points where the structures intersect vertically. It is possible to jump down into the floor below and there are even circles in 3D where the common rule "always touch the wall with the same hand" does not succeed to leave the labyrinth. To make things easier I create stairs of length two so one voxel level is always skipped. Due to chambers it is still possible that there are vertical intersections but they are rare.

In conclusion it was a very good idea to use voxels in the first place. In feature I might use the component based generator approach for other things. One could even think of something hierarchically. For each substructure one can just ignore everything else and concentrate on a meaningful result.